WHY STUDY IN GERMANY
Education system in Germany
First and Secondary Education
Compulsory education in Germany is from the age of 6 to 15 years. School children are in primary school (Grundschule) for four years in most of the federal states, apart from Berlin and Brandenburg where primary school finishes after grade 6. There are different types of secondary schools, starting with grade 5 or 7 and finishing with grade 10 or 12 with different school leaving certificates.
The Hauptschule (lower secondary school) is till grade 9 and with the certificate for taking a vocational apprenticeship. Upper secondary school (Realschule) completes with grade 10, students can then chose to continue with the Oberschule and take the Abitur (A-Level/baccalaureate) or they start a vocational apprenticeship. At a Gymnasium, students finish after grade 12 (until recently, it used to be after grade 13) with their Abitur which is the entry qualification for higher academic education at universities or colleges. The Fachabitur is a special version of the Abitur, taking more practical subjects and already qualifying oneself in a practical field, for example social studies. Students with a Fachabitur can study at colleges and polytechnics, but not at universities.
There is also a mixed version, the Gesamtschule (secondary state school) which includes all three school types, depending on the development of the student's qualifications. So, a student with improving grades at the end of a school year can change from Hauptschule to Realschule or to Gymnasium. The education plan can vary between the Ministries of Education of each federal state, but generally, secondary education is compulsory and free.
There are also different types of higher education institutions divided into: universities (Universitäten, Technische Hochschulen/Technische Universitäten, Pädagogische Hochschulen), and colleges of art and music (Kunsthochschulen and Musikhochschulen), and Fachhochschulen (colleges of applied sciences). All these institutions are undergoing a reorganisation since the early 1990s. With the introduction of the internationally comparable Bachelor, Master and Ph.D. programmes, the qualification of a new generation of academics and scientific study is the focus of future development.
Moreover, the institutions of higher education are made more efficient by granting them further freedom in organisational matters and the chance to shape an individual profile and evoking more competition. As the primary and secondary education system, the higher education system is also subject to decisions and programmes of the governments of the federal states.
Fachhochschulen (colleges of applied sciences), offer a range of practically oriented study courses such as Engineering, Economics, Social Work, Public and Legal Administration and Health and Therapy. A Diplom degree can be achieved after 8 semesters of studying and a finally successful examination. Students then get the title of Diplom-Ingenieur (FH). The initials "FH" are added to the Diplom degrees pointing to the diploma of a Fachhochschule.
Universities in Germany
Undergraduate studies were until recently the basic studies (Grundstudium) of a Diplom or Magister programme, generally taking four semesters (2 academic years) and finishing with an intermediate examination (Diplom-Vorprüfung, Zwischenprüfung). Students are then enabled to follow their studies in the second stage of Hauptstudium, taking another 4 semesters with the 5th being the preparatory semester for taking the final exams, the Diplomprüfung or the Magisterprüfung or State Exam (for Law and subjects for becoming a teacher).
The new graduation system of the Bachelor as an undergraduate program instead of the basic studies program has already been introduced in Germany with the aim of achieving an internationally competitive degree and studying in a condensed, shortened time of 3 years.
The advanced studies (Hauptstudium) form the second stage to the final examination, takes five semesters at least. The final exams still are the Diplom and Magister, but they are slowly replaced by the Master degree. The Magister study involves either two equally weighed major subjects or a mixture of one major and two minor subjects. According to the new graduation system, after having completed the Bachelor's studies, a Master of Arts/Science is the successfully achieved title after two years of studying.
A Doctoral degree can only be achieved at universities. The time of doctoral studies, the Promotion, has duration of 2 to 4 years of independent scientific research, the public presentation and defence of the thesis. The Diplom/Erstes Staatsexamen/Magister Artium/Master of Arts/Science are the preconditions for taking Doctoral studies.
The closing dates for applications to the International offices are usually July 15 for the following winter semester and January 15 for the following summer semester. If your application is late even by one day, it is not going to be processed.
As soon as you have received your notification of admission and passed the language test, you need to register at your chosen university or college. Please direct your queries to the Registrar's office (studentensekretariat) in good time so as to wrap up the formalities and paperwork long before the session is due to start.
Your first port of call upon arrival in Germany must necessarily be the International office which will provide you with all the basic information you need to arrange the initial days of your stay in that country. Subsequently you must get yourself registered at the Resident Registration office and finally with the Alien'sRegistration Authority.undefined
We investigate the relationship between remittances and migrants' education both theoretically and empirically, using original bilateral remittance data. At a theoretical level we lay out a model of remittances interacting migrants' human capital with two dimensions of immigration policy: restrictiveness, and selectivity. The model predicts that the relationship between remittances and migrants' education is ambiguous and depends on the immigration policy conducted at destination. The effect of education is more likely to be positive when the immigration policy is more restrictive and less skill-selective. These predictions are then tested empirically using bilateral remittance and migration data and proxy measures for the restrictiveness and selectivity of immigration policies at destination. The results strongly support the theoretical analysis, suggesting that immigration policies determine the sign and magnitude of the relationship between remittances and migrants' education.