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About Germany

 

About Germany

 

COUNTRY FACTS

Capital:

Berlin

Population:

82,398,326

Area:

356,970 sq km

Language:

German, English

Religion:

Roman Catholic, Protestant

Continent:

Europe

Culture

The concept of Culture can be defined in many aspects like history and literature, art galleries and museums, food or music and education. The way they eat, speak, spend free time, work, dress, learn and express emotions. Culture is the patterns of behavior and ways of thinking that people living in a particular social group learn and create. 


German is one of the most important cultural languages. It was spoken and written by Goethe, Mozart, Beethoven, Freud, Klimt and Einstein, and numerous other great artists and scientists. Many of the European culture have been written in the German language. 

  • Literature (Goethe, Schiller, Thomas Mann, Kafka)
  • Classical music (Bach, Beethoven, Mozart)
  • Art (Kollwitz, Dürer, Klee, Kaninsky)
  • Psychology (Freud, Jung)
  • Philosophy (Kant, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Benjamin, Adorno)
  • Science (Einstein, Kepler, Röntgen, Planck, Virchow)

Climate

 Weather in Spring

Almond Blossoms at the German Wine Road 
As soon as those first rays of sun come out (even if it’s still chilly), you'll see many Germans in parks and outdoor cafes, soaking up the sun and enjoying the eagerly anticipated beginning of the warm season. 
As any time of year, the weather in Germany can be unpredictable, and sometimes, spring seems to arrive hesitantly: It can still snow in March, and the weather in April may change from sun to rain or hail showers in a couple of hours. So bring those layers and pack some wet weather gear.

Average Temperatures:

March: Average low 33° F, average high 47° F 
April: Average low 39° F, average high 58° F 
May: Average low 47° F, average high 67° F

 

 Weather in Summer

Nudism in Germany
In summer, you can enjoy long, sunny days, with temperatures often ranging between 70° and 80° F. But the summer months are also the time when precipitation in Germany is high, so don't forget your umbrella. 
It is usually warmest in the south of Germany. The Palatinate wine region in the Southwest is even blessed with a Mediterranean climate; exotic fruits like figs, lemons, and kiwis are cultivated here – a rarity for Germany.

Average Temperatures:

June: Average low 51° F, average high 72° F 
July: Average low 54° F, average high 76° F 
August: Average low 55° F, average high 76° F

Geography

Location: 
Central Europe, bordering the North Sea and the Baltic Sea between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
Area: 
Total area: 356,910 km^2
Land area: 349,520 km^2
Comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana.
Note: 
includes the formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and Berlin following formal unification on 3 October 1990.
Land boundaries: 
Total 3,621 km
Austria 784 km
Belgium 167 km
Czech Republic 646 km
Denmark 68 km
France 451 km
Luxembourg 138 km
Netherlands 577 km
Poland 456 km
Switzerland 334 km
Coastline: 2,389 km
Maritime claims: 
Continental shelf: 200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm
International disputes: none

Weather in Fall

autumn at the German wine road
In September and October, the weather in Germany can still be pleasant, with golden days ablaze in colorful fall foliage. Germans call these last warm days of the year “Altweibersommer” (Indian summer). As always, German weather is unpredictable, so be prepared for cold and rainy spells. 
In November, the days are getting noticeably shorter, cold, and gray, and it sometimes can snow.

Average Temperatures:

September: Average low 49° F, average high 67° F 
October: Average low 40° F, average high 58°F 
November: Average low 34° F, average high 47° F

 

 Weather in Winter

Germany in snow, winter
Bundle up! German winters are cold, with temperatures often dropping below zero, which in turn results in some great winter sport areas in Germany, especially in higher German regions such as the Bavarian Alps. Other parts of Germany are often blessed with a white Christmas as well, but there is no guarantee for snow: German winters can be unpredictable, and you should always be prepared for rain.

Average Temperatures:

December: Average low 27° F, average high 41° F 
January: Average low 23° F, average high 40° F 
February: Average low 25° F, average high 41° F
History
Although less clearly defined by geography than the other natural territories of western Europe (such as Italy, the Spanish peninsula, France or Britain), the area broadly identified as Germany has clear boundaries on three sides - the Baltic to the north, the Rhine to the west, the Alps or the Danube to the south. Only to the east is there no natural border (a fact which has caused much strife and confusion in European history). 

The region becomes associated with the name Germany in the 1st century BC, when theconquest of Gaulmakes the Romans aware for the first time that there is an ethnic and linguistic distinction between theCelts (or Gauls) and their aggressive neighbours, the Germans. 
 

Celts, Germans and Romans: 2nd - 1st century BC

The Celtsthemselves, in earlier centuries, have moved westwards from Germany, crossing the Rhine into France and pushing ahead of them the previous neolithic inhabitants of these regions. More recently the Celts have been subjected to the same westward pressure from variousGermanic tribes. The intruders are identified as a group by their closely related languages, defined as the Germanic or Teutonic subdivision ofIndo-European language

From the 2nd century BC the Germans exert increasing pressure on the Roman empire. The reign ofAugustus Caesarsees a trial of strength between the empire and the tribes, leading to an uneasy balance of power. 
 

The region in which Augustus makes the most effort to extend the empire is beyond the Alps into Germany. By 14 BC the German tribes are subdued up to the Danube. In the next five years Roman legions push forward to the Elbe. But this further border proves impossible to hold. In AD 9 Arminius, a German chieftain of great military skill, destroys three Roman legions in the Teutoburg Forest. 

The Romans pull back (though they return briefly to avenge what seems a shameful defeat). The conclusion, bequeathed by Augustus to his successors, is that the Roman empire has some natural boundaries; to the north these are the Rhine and the Danube. 
 

German and Roman Europe: from the 5th century AD

The Germanic tribes continue to raid, often deep into the empire. But their base remains north of the Rhine and Danube until the 5th century - when the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Burgundians and Franks move in vast migrations through Italy,France andSpain

Their presence becomes part of the history of these regions. France and Spain - prosperous and stable parts of the Roman empire - have becomes almost as Romanized as Italy itself. Culturally they are strong enough to absorb their new Germanic masters, as is revealed by the boundary line of Europe's languages. French, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian are known as the Romance languagesbecause they share a Roman, or Latin, origin. 
 

Northern Europe, by contrast, speaks Germanic languages. Scandinavia does so because it is the region from which the German tribes migrate southwards. Britain does so because tribes invading from the 5th century (Angles and Saxons) are able to dominate a culture less fully Romanized than Gaul. And Germany, with the Netherlands, does so because here the tribes are relatively unaffected by Roman influence - secure in a region whichTacitus describes as 'covered either by bristling forests or by foul swamps'. 

By the same token the tribes in the German heartland are backward. For the first few centuries of the post-Roman era they are no match for the more sophisticatedFranks, who have established themselves in Gaul.