About country, facts and figure
People: Canada is a multicultural country with people from all over the world who have now made Canada their home. Ethnic Groups (wholly or partly): North American Origin 40%, British Origin 33%, French Origin 16%, Other European 29%, Aboriginal peoples 4%, South, East & South-East Asian 9%, Other (mostly Caribbean, Arab, African, Latin/Central/South American and West Asian) 6%. The total comes to more than 100% because many Canadians (approximately 38%) have a mixed background.
Languages: Canada has two official languages, English (59%) and French (23%). 17% of the population have another language as their ‘mother tongue’.
Religion(s): Roman Catholic 43%; Protestant 23% (including United Church 9%, Anglican 6%, Baptist 2%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4%, Muslim 1% other and unspecified 11%, none 16%.
Currency: Canadian Dollar. 1 Dollar is made up of 100 cents.
Major political parties: The main political parties at federal (i.e. national) level are: Conservative Party, Liberal Party, Bloc Quebecois (in Quebec Province only) and New Democratic Party (NDP). The Liberals and NDP are also represented at provincial level. There are also some notable provincial parties, e.g. the Progressive Conservative Party, the Parti Quebecois in Quebec, the Saskatchewan Party and the Yukon Party.
Government: Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a federal state with a democratic system of government.
Head of State: Queen Elizabeth II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General.
Canadian culture is a term that explains the artistic, musical, literary, culinary, political and social elements that are representative of Canada and Canadians, not only to its own population, but people all over the world. Canada's culture has historically been influenced by European cultureand traditions, especially British and French. Over time, elements of the cultures of Canada'sAboriginal peoples and immigrant populations have become incorporated into mainstream Canadian culture. It has subsequently been influenced by American culture because of its proximity and migration between the two countries.
Canada is often characterised as being "very progressive, diverse, and multicultural". Canadian Government policies such as; publicly funded health care, higher and more progressive taxation, outlawing capital punishment, strong efforts to eliminate poverty, an emphasis on cultural diversity, and most recently legalizing same-sex marriage – are social indicators of how Canada's political and cultural identities differ from that of the United States.
Canada's federal government has influenced Canadian culture with programs, laws and institutions. It has created crown corporations to promote Canadian culture through media, such as theCanadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) and the National Film Board of Canada (NFB), and promotes many events which it considers to promote Canadian traditions. It has also tried toprotect Canadian culture by setting legal minimums on Canadian content in many media using bodies like the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC)
Area: 9,984,670 million sq km
Population: (estimated population) is 34.03 million (July 2011 est)
Capital city: Ottawa
The population of Canada, some 33.5 million as of 2011, is concentrated in the south in proximity to its border with the contiguous U.S.; with a population density of 3.5 people/km2 (9.1/sq mi), it is one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. The northernmost settlement in Canada—and in the world—is Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert (just north of Alert, Nunavut) on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island at 82°30′N 62°19′W, just 834 kilometres (518 mi) from the North Pole.
Canada has winter, spring, summer and fall. However the climate and intensity of these seasons varies across the country.
The west coast of British Columbia, including Vancouver, has a moderate climate year round and thus the seasons are less distinct from one another. Overall, the west coast has summers that aren't as warm nor winters that are as bitterly cold as say, Toronto or Montreal.
The height of winter is freezing cold in most places except for the BC coast, where winters are moderate with little snow. Nearby Whistler, on the other hand gets loads of snow and is a major ski destination through May.
In the Rockies, winter is long. However, snow stays around only in the higher altitudes. Calgary, does not get much snow, but Banff and Canmore may get two feet in April. In addition, southern Alberta gets winter relief from warm Chinook winds.
Eastern Canada, including Toronto and Montreal, has a short, fierce winter, below zero temperatures most of the time, and -20°C (-4°F) not uncommon. At least one or two snowfalls of eight inches or more will likely hit in January and February.
The geography of Canada entails the physical and human geography ofCanada, the world's second largest country in total area.
Situated in northern North America (constituting 41% of the continent's area), Canada spans a vast, diverse territory between the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Arctic Ocean to the north (hence the country's motto "From sea to sea"), with the United States to the south (contiguous United States) and northwest (Alaska). Greenland is to the northeast; off the southern coast of Newfoundland lies Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, an overseas collectivity of France. Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60°W and 141°W longitude to the North Pole; however, this claim is contested. Relatedly, while the magnetic North Polelies within the Canadian Arctic territorial claim as of 2011, recent measurements indicate it is moving towards Siberia.
Covering 9,984,670 km2 or 3,855,100 sq mi (Land: 9,093,507 km2 or 3,511,023 sq mi; Water: 891,163 km2 or 344,080 sq mi), Canada is slightly less than three-fifths as large as Russia, nearly 1.2 times larger than Australia, slightly larger than Europe, and more than 40 times larger than the UK. In total area, Canada is slightly larger than both the U.S. and China; however, Canada ranks fourth in land area (i.e., total area minus the area of lakes and rivers)—China is 9,326,410 km2/3,600,950 sq mi and the U.S. is 9,161,923 km2/3,537,438 sq mi.
The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day. Canada has been inhabited for millennia by distinctive groups of Aboriginal peoples, among whom evolved trade networks, spiritual beliefs, and social hierarchies. Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first European arrivals and have been discovered through archaeological investigations. Various treaties and laws have been enacted between European settlers and the Aboriginal populations.
Beginning in the late 15th century, French and British expeditions explored, and later settled, along the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America to Britain in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies throughConfederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the British Empire, which became official with the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and completed in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
Over centuries, elements of Aboriginal, French, British and more recent immigrant customs have combined to form a Canadian culture. Canadian culture has also been strongly influenced by that of its linguistic, geographic and economic neighbour, the United States. Since the conclusion of the Second World War, Canadians have supported multilateralism abroad and socioeconomic development domestically. Canada currently consists of ten provinces and three territories and is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state.